Banner /etc/
 * This is a private system.                 *
 * Use by unauthorized persons is prohibited.*
 * All accesses to this service are logged.  *

SSH and working with keys

create your key

 ssh-keygen -t dsa

copy your new key out to all the servers, and make ssh use it. the mkdir below may fail if the directory exists, ignore the error its harmless

for i in $(cat servers) ; do
echo SERVER=$;
scp ~/.ssh/ $i
ssh $i "mkdir .ssh ;
chmod 700 .ssh ;
cat ~/ >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys ;
chmod 644 /.ssh/authorized_keys;"

How to Fix Offering key in ~/.ssh/known_hosts

# ssh -o 'StrictHostKeyChecking no' user@host

Remove the offending ssh key

Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /home/ramesh/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending key in /home/ramesh/.ssh/known_hosts: 6
Permission denied (publickey,password).
 # sed -i '6d' ~/.ssh/known_hosts
Note: Change the 6d according to the line number shown.

Perl solution:

 # perl -pi -e 's/\Q$_// if ($. == 6);' ~/.ssh/known_hosts

How to harden your sshd

Joost van Baal, february 2006


This document explains how to harden the OpenSSH sshd, as commonly found on GNU/Linux and other Unix-like systems. Its intended audience is system administrators who are not afraid to read manpages. Examples will be somewhat Debian-specific, but are likely applicable for other systems too. If you have any suggestions or comments, please email

If your system is connected to the internet, and you're offering a publically accessible sshd, you'll likely have seen stuff like

 Feb 19 04:18:45 gelfand sshd[6461]: (pam_unix) authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser=
 Feb 19 04:18:47 gelfand sshd[6461]: Failed password for invalid user ident from port 53170 ssh2
 Feb 19 04:18:49 gelfand sshd[6463]: Invalid user privoxy from
 Feb 19 04:18:49 gelfand sshd[6463]: (pam_unix) check pass; user unknown
 Feb 19 04:18:49 gelfand sshd[6463]: (pam_unix) authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser=
 Feb 19 04:18:50 gelfand sshd[6463]: Failed password for invalid user privoxy from port 53502 ssh2
 Feb 19 04:18:52 gelfand sshd[6465]: Invalid user pvm from
 Feb 19 04:18:52 gelfand sshd[6465]: (pam_unix) check pass; user unknown
 Feb 19 04:18:52 gelfand sshd[6465]: (pam_unix) authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser=
 Feb 19 04:18:54 gelfand sshd[6465]: Failed password for invalid user pvm from port 53804 ssh2

in your /var/log/auth.log file. This means you've been under attack by a (very likely) automated sshd scanner. It tried to open a shell on your system by doing brute-force password guessing dictionary attacks.

Recently, we've seen attacks like this succeed, and leading to GNU/Linux systems being added to DDoS zombie bot networks.

Let me tell you this: you don't want such a thing to happen to your system.

There are various ways to make sure you won't be the next target. We'll give you some of the ways here. Pick the one (or pick _more_ than one, to be even more secure!) most suitable for your situation. Questions to ask yourself in order to decide: Do you really need an sshd? Who are the legitimate users of your sshd? Are these people on static IPs? Are these people able to handle ssh keypairs?

Hardening your sshd

If you make any of the suggested configuration changes: test the change before trusting it!

  • Don't run sshd: disable the /etc/init.d/ssh script and/or remove /usr/sbin/sshd. (You probaly want to _keep_ the client: /usr/bin/ssh) If you're running Debian sarge, do this by invoking “dpkg-reconfigure -plow ssh”.
  • Make sure you're behind a router/firewall which disallows ssh clients connecting to you.
  • Configure iptables to disallow ssh-access from untrusted IPs. You might want to use a gui wrapper like firestarter, fwbuilder or guarddog, or a bare bones wrapper like shorewall or uruk for setting up the rules.
  • Configure /etc/hosts.allow to allow ssh only from trusted IPs. See hosts_access(5).
  • Run sshd on a non-standard port (e.g. “Port 222” in /etc/ssh/sshd_config), and tell your users to use ssh's -p flag. It is preferred to use a port <1024, so that only root can run the server.
  • Use a tool which blocks an IP after a set of failed logins from that IP:
  • Allow sshd from an IP only when needed: use knockd (shipped with Debian sarge and later).
  • Allow ssh access only from specific IPs to specific local useraccounts: add something like

AllowUsers youraccount@1.2.3.* yourfriend@ anotheraccount

to /etc/ssh/sshd_config. This example would allow access from and from the IP with PTR pointing to to the local user youraccount. It would furthermore allow access from to user yourfriend. Finally, SSH access to anotheraccount is allowed from any IP. All other SSH access is denied. See sshd_config(5).

  • Disallow password authentication: “PasswordAuthentication no” in sshd_config. This forces people to use keypairs: .ssh/authorized_keys on your host and ~/.ssh/id_rsa[.pub] on their host. You might want to disable passwords alltogether now: the second field in /etc/shadow should be *.
  • Force your users to choose good passwords.
  • Use One Time Passwords, via the PAM opie library.
  • Offer ssh via IPv6 only.

See also

“Securing SSH, kind of.” by Martin ( ) at .

“Keeping SSH access secure” by Steve Kemp and various contributors at .


Wessel Dankers for valuable feedback.

Version, availability

This is version $Id: ssh-harden.txt 9678 2006-02-20 06:40:05Z joostvb $, maintained using SVN at URL: $.

This document is published at .

Copyright 2006 Tilburg University

This document is free; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU GPL, see . There is NO WARRANTY.



    action = %(action_mw)s\\

other SSH stuff

use EF DSCP in ssh:

IPQoS ef

use jump host

Host finalhost
HostName finalhost
User userfinal
ProxyCommand ssh proxyuser@proxyhost nc %h %p

then one can simply type

ssh finalhost 

to ssh via proxyhost to final destination host

using same options for multiple hosts in same domain

 Host switch* router* myrouter* cmts*

no need to type FQDN for switch-somethingsomething

ssh.txt · Last modified: 2016/08/04 09:37 by zagi
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